Longest and Shortest Reigning Monarchs

Longest Reigning Monarchs

1 Sobhuza II, Swaziland
10 December 1899 to 21 August 1982
82 years, 254 days

2 Bernhard VII, Lippe (Holy Roman Empire – HRE)
12 August 1429 to 2 April 1511
81 years, 234 days

3 William IV, Henneberg-Schleusingen (HRE)
26 May 1480 to 24 January 1559
78 years, 243 days

4 Heinrich XI, Reuss-Obergreiz (HRE)
17 March 1723 to 28 June 1800
77 years, 103 days

5 Idris ibni Muhammad al-Qadri, Tunku Besar of Tampin Tampin (Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia)
1 to 31 May 1929 to 26 December 2005
76 years, 224 days ± 15 days

6 Christian August, Palatinate-Sulzbach (HRE)
14 August 1632 to 23 April 1708
75 years, 253 days

7 Mudhoji IV Rao Naik Nimbalkar, Phaltan (India)
7 December 1841 to 17 October 1916
74 years, 315 days

8 Bhagvatsingh Sahib, Gondal state (India)
14 December 1869 to 10 March 1944
74 years, 87 days

9 Georg Wilhelm, Schaumburg-Lippe
13 February 1787 to 21 November 1860
73 years, 282 days

10 Karl Friedrich, Baden
12 May 1738 to 10 June 1811
73 years, 29 days

Shortest Reigning Monarchs

=10 Pope-elect Stephen, Holy See
23 March 752 to 26 March 752
3 days
Stephen died of apoplexy 3 days after his election, missing his consecration.

=10 Lê Trung Tông, Vietnam
October 1005 to October 1005
3 days
Assassinated by his successor Lê Ngoạ Triều.

=10 Lê Quang Trị, Vietnam
1516
3 days

=10 King Karposh Kumanovo
October 1689
3 days
Leader of an uprising against the Ottoman Empire.  It is believed Karposh was executed by the Ottomans on the Stone Bridge in Skopje.

=10 Emperor Dục Đức, Vietnam
20 July 1883 to 23 July 1883
3 days
Executed for failing to observe Confucian mourning etiquette, and for having intimate relations with his predecessor’s concubines.

=10 King Inayatullah Khan Seraj, Afghanistan
14 January 1929 17 January 1929
3 days
Abdicated after 3 days

8 King Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, Nepal
1 June 2001 to 4 June 2001
<56 hours
Succeeded to the throne after the murder of his father Birendra during the Nepalese royal massacre in which Dipendra allegedly inflicted mortal wounds upon himself.

7 Sultan Sayyid Khalid bin Barghash, Zanzibar
25 August 1896 to 27 August 1896
2 days
Seized power after the death of Sayyid Hamad bin Thuwaini Al-Busaid resulting in the 38 minute Anglo-Zanzibar War. Replaced by Sayyid Hamoud bin Mohammed Al-Said after surrender.

6 Emperor Michael I Megas Komnenos, Empire of Trebizond
30 July 1341 to 31 July 1341
Less than 24 hours
Imprisoned by nobles shortly after succession.

5 Tsar Michael II, Russian Empire
15 March 1917 to 16 March 1917
16 hours
Deferred acceptance. Later was the first of the Romanovs to be executed by the Bolsheviks.

4 Emperor Mo, Jurchen Empire
9 February 1234 to 9 February 1234
12 hours
Crowned while under assault by Mongolians at the Siege of Caizhou and killed after the coronation.

3 Victoria Kamāmalu, Hawaii
30 November 1864 to 30 November 1864
5 hours and 45 minutes
She became head of state upon her brother Kamehameha IV’s death at 9:15 a.m. until her other brother Kamehameha V was declared as the actual successor at 3 p.m. the same day.

2 Daughter of Emperor Xiaoming of Northern Wei, Northern Wei
1 April 528 to 1 April 528
Less than 5 hours
Soon after her birth, her grandmother, the Empress Dowager Hu, falsely declared she was a boy.  Emperor Xiaoming died soon afterwards, having been poisoned by Hu.  The daughter was installed on the throne for a matter of hours before she was replaced with Yuan Zhao (a cousin of the dead Emperor) the next day.

1 Prince Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême, “King Louis XIX” Kingdom of France
2 August 1830 to 2 August 1830
20 minutes
Succeeded according to the order of succession with the abdication of his father Charles X and then abdicated in favour of his nephew, Henri V, after twenty minutes deliberation.

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